It's all about emotion. To the scientist (and Norman is a well known Professor of Cognitive Science), emotion has many complex facets. In his popular book, Emotional Design, Norman showed how emotion can be treated as three different components, each having very different implications for design, for business, and for your customers. The Visceral level is innate -- common across cultures. it's all about appearances and why some things attract us, some repel us: this is where graphical artists and industrial designers exert their power. The Behavioral level is learned, and is different for everyone. This is about how well a product or service performs. Does the company, product, or service deliver without glitches, with pleasure, not frustration: this is where engineering shines. The highest level is Reflection, which is all about image and memory. This is very culture-specific, where culture can be as broad as Chinese versus Americans, or as specific as American tweenies versus American teens. This is the playing field of Brand. Perform well here, and you can screw up a bit on the other levels. Perform badly here, and it can take years to recover.